Modern Anasazi Wall Builders of Jerome, Part 2—Paul Nonnast

One of the comments from Part 1 of the wall builder stories was from Doyle Vines, a Jeroman that worked for the town of Jerome in many capacities in the eighties. Doyle wrote how much he loved the Holly Street wall.  It’s one of my favorites as well. The head of the crew that rebuilt that wall was Paul Nonnast, who is among my favorite of the modern hand-stacked build wall builders, along with Bob Hall, Richard Martin, Chuck Runyon, and my husband Walter.

The Holly Street Wall. The part built by Nonnast and the Town of Jerome is at the far   left. Photo by Bob Swanson/SwansonImages.com.

The Holly Street Wall. The part built by Nonnast and the Town of Jerome is at the far left. Photo by Bob Swanson/SwansonImages.com.

“I became a wall-builder of necessity,” Nonnast told me in 1990. “With the little money I came here with, I bought an old truck and 3 empty lots out the lonesome edge of town. My house was built with stones I gathered from out on Perkinsville Road, pick-axes, shovels, plumb bob, and a wheelbarrow.

Caption ‘The House on the Edge of Time’ was what Nonnast called that house. I published a story on that house ArtSpace Magazine in 1988. Photos by ML Lincoln

Caption ‘The House on the Edge of Time’ was what Nonnast called his house. I published a story on it in ArtSpace Magazine in 1988. Photos by ML Lincoln

I intercepted Jerome at the end of an era and have a perspective that I wouldn’t have if I turned up in town today. In 1975, many of us were considered bums. We struggled for a living. There were real outlaws living among us. We all tried to get along.  Everyone asked ‘how are you doing’ and cared about the answer. Today, the town bores me. All the talk is money.”

Built into the hillside,  Nonnast sometimes described his home as a ‘perforated cave’—a compact L-shaped building of three rooms: kitchen, bedroom, drafting/fabrication room. Adjacent are smaller rooms for storing tools and materials and a self-composting toilet.  The interior rooms open onto a stone terrace with round, cold pool and serve as an extension of the home’s internal spaces.   Inside and out, graceful sweeping curves, flat planes, numerous levels, angles, delicate patterning and tight joints identify Nonnast as a master stonemason.

Nonnast follows an ancient tradition of wall building among the ancient Anasazi (early Pueblo peoples of Utah and Arizona).

Some of the great walls at Chaco Canyon.

Some of the great walls at Chaco Canyon.

Paul is right at the top of my list of favorite artists, a visionary that was adept at sculpture, painting and architecture. He also was an industrial designer and designed the instrument case for Jerome Instrument Corporation’s mercury detector.

Paul Nonnast, paint on metal. Photo by ML Lincoln. I am so glad to own a few Nonnast paintings.

Paul Nonnast, paint on metal. Photo by ML Lincoln. I am so glad to own a few Nonnast paintings.

Only a few people in Jerome know that Nonnast received one of four honorable mentions in the prestigious Vietnam War Memorial Design Competition sponsored in Washington D.C. in l981. His memorial was conceived as a 22-foot cast bronze obelisk, counter-weighted and set into a fulcrum to allow motion. The obelisk was centered within a semi-circular polished granite surface textured with graceful spiral forms.

Obelisk maquette, balanced so it would sway in the wind. A smaller version was in Nonnast's home and I liked doing cloud hands with it as it swayed. Photo by ML Lincoln

Obelisk maquette, balanced so it would sway in the wind. A smaller version was in Nonnast’s home and I liked doing cloud hands with it as it swayed. Photo by ML Lincoln

His work was perfectly meticulous, even in what we might think of as ordinary objects. Once while staying at his house on a visit to Jerome, there was an old lunch box out on the dresser.  I had to look inside.  There were 12 dried maple leaves of beautiful colors arranged in an elegant pattern. That was the essence of Paul.

Paul Nonnast passed away in November 2005.

To view images of his art and rare collectibles, including the obelisk, go to http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulnonnast/

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Mining in Jerome AZ after 1953

(Short excerpt from Home Sweet Jerome: Death and Rebirth of Arizona’s Richest Copper City by Diane Rapaport  (to be published by Johnson Books, Boulder, CO., spring 2014.))

Mining activities never stopped in Jerome after the two great mines—United Verde Extension Gold, Silver and Copper Mining Company (UVX) and Phelps Dodge Corporation (successor to the United Verde Copper Company—shut their operations and the city emptied out.

In 1953, speculation ran high that the entire town of Jerome would be razed. A former official of Phelps Dodge Corporation said, “Within a year—grass will grow on the main street of Jerome—Jerome is finished.”[A]

It would have been an easy time for the mining companies to bulldoze the rest of the town. There were not a lot of people. Essential services, such as the hospital and schools, had been relocated to the Verde Valley. The mining companies owned a great deal of buildings and property in Jerome and beneath it.

The open pit just outside of Jerome. Photo by Bob Swanson (SwansonImages.com)

The open pit just outside of Jerome. Photo by Bob Swanson (SwansonImages.com)

The Big Hole Mine

In 1954, new activity at the open pit just outside of Jerome, fueled rumors that big scale mining would someday return.

The small mining division of Phelps Dodge leased rights to mine the slopes of the open pit  to three people that lived in the Verde Valley.[i]

They called it The Big Hole Mine and operated it until 1975.[ii]

Between eight and twelve men were employed at any given time. They scaled the sides of the pit and drilled into the steep walls and dynamited the ore-bearing rocks. “It was dangerous work,” said Robert Sandoval, one of the miners who grew up in Jerome. “The trails were narrow, we were working high up, and the overhangs were large. We’d hide in some of the small caves up there when we blasted.”

Miners would separate waste from the ore-bearing rocks, put them in pickup trucks and load them into a railroad car in Clarkdale that was sent weekly to the Phelps Dodge smelter in Douglas, Arizona.

According to Paul Handverger, a geologist living in the Verde Valley, The Big Hole Mine shipped over 200,000 tons of ore that contained 25 million pounds of copper (12,500 tons), 2,800 ounces of gold, and almost 200,000 ounces of silver.[iii]

It was a profitable small business. Mining was discontinued when the surfaces of the open pit could not be further exploited.

Gold Mining in Jerome: 1980’s

In 1980, geologist Paul Handverger discovered an unexploited source of microscopic gold in the old UVX mine. The gold, perhaps less than .02 ounces to the ton  was part of silica-rich quartz chert that could be used as flux in smelting operations and could become a profitable by-product.[1]

In 1985, Verde Ex, successor to UVX,  leased mining rights to A. F. Budge Mining Limited (Budge), a company located in Scottsdale, AZ. Repair and exploration took about three years and in early 1988, Budge started production. Their goal was to take out 100,000 pounds of chert daily, using five to eight twenty-ton trucks going up and down the hill from Jerome to Clarkdale and to employ about forty people.[2] The mine was located just below the Arizona State Park (Douglas Mansion).

Although most of the nonproduction activity occurred at night, some Jerome residents complained about lack of sleep because of the noise of the air compressor that was used to pump clean air in and out of the mine, the sounds of trucks being filled with rock and truck back-up signals. The problem was exacerbated by dogs barking and whining at night. Most oddly, there were reports of bees acting queerly—by forming in clusters, coming into homes and dying.

Like many issues in a small village, strong arguments from those for and against the mine became increasingly negative and emotionally charged. In one rancorous Jerome town council meeting, one mining geologist stood up and shook his fist shouting, “You’ll see big mining return here in the next century. The biggest zinc deposit in North America is right underneath Jerome.”[3]

Although four different mining companies professed interest as buyers of the chert, contracts for the ore were not forthcoming. Budge shut down in 1989.

Although mining for ores has stopped in the Jerome area, mining activity has not. Phelps Dodge and its successor Freeport McMoRan Copper and Gold Inc., spent millions of dollars in remediating water laden with copper sulfate and other mining wastes from flowing into Bitter Creek and potentially contaminating water resources downstream.

Drop a metal part into copper sulfate water and watch it become coated with copper. After heavy rains, the ditches above Jerome ran blue.

Drop a metal part into copper sulfate water and watch it become coated with copper. After heavy rains, the ditches above Jerome ran blue.

In 2008, exploration for a new copper ore body west of Jerome  heightened fears among Jerome residents that active mining might again return.


[A] News Bulletin, Jerome Historical Society newsletter, 1955.

[i] The owners of the Big Hole Mine were Mark Gemmill, his son Dick, and Gordon Robineau.

[ii] Douglas Mansion geologic display, The Verde Independent, April 15, 1965, and author interview with Paul Handverger, 2011.

[iii] Email to author.

[1] Verde Independent, Nov 11, 1987 and author interview with Paul Handveger 2011.

[2] Author conversations with Budge mining foreman Pete Flores and geologist Don White.

[3] Minutes of the Jerome Protection Foundation, Diane Rapaport files.


1969: Bill Graham Hires Diane Sward (Rapaport) as an Artist’s Manager

Three months went by without my having any clue about how I could get a job with Bill Graham’s Fillmore Management.

I continued to find bookings for Pamela Polland, Jan Tangen and Dave Friedman. Gigs in Bay Area coffeehouses were easy to get, but they didn’t make a lot of money for anyone, including the performers. They were able to get a few gigs in clubs at 8 or 8:30 p.m., prior to when many rock bands began setting up for a 9:30 show. I told club owners that my band would help warm up the audience, didn’t need a big stage setup (no drums, no big amps, no stage monitors) and would make them enough extra bucks selling drinks to pay us.

However rock fans and acoustic music fans didn’t always mix well. More often than not the audience would start getting impatient around 9:15. “We want jerry (Garcia); we want Elvin (Bishop) and so on.”

I attended a lot of Lamb gigs and saw such other Bay Area acoustic performers as Lambert & Nuttycombe, Jeffrey Cain and Uncle Vinty. They were all bucking up against rock ‘n roll. The audiences for rock bands were larger; and that meant more money for the club owners. The only songwriter that seemed to draw a large crowd was Victoria when she played outdoors at San Francisco’s Cannery.

Uncle Vinty would stride to the piano, put on his Viking hat, wild hair poking out, and belt out hilarious and passionate tunes, a big grin on his face. Everyone loved him. He brought out our young-at-heart natures. One of my favorite songs had the refrain, “The Moon is never going to let us down,’ and it can be seen on yuoutube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AV_HAiz9Pxk

Uncle Vinty would stride to the piano, put on his Viking hat, wild hair poking out, and belt out hilarious, joyous and passionate tunes, a big grin on his face. Everyone loved him. He brought out our young-at-heart natures. One of my favorite songs had the refrain, “The Moon is never going to let us down,’ and it can be seen on yuoutube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AV_HAiz9Pxk How could you not love a mau who sings, “Don’t ever forget, you can always go out and howl at the moon. . ah oooooooo.”  Or “The plants and the animals stand and sing, when you’re not looking, when you’re in love.”

 

Lamb and Victoria were signed to Fillmore Records (distributed by Warner Brothers); Jeffrey Cain to Warner Brothers via the producer of the Youngbloods; Lambert & Nuttycombe to A & M Records. But nobody, including my trio, were going anywhere. Everyone was making just enough money to feed themselves.

Jeffrey Cain was a singer/songwriter who released “For You” and “Whispering Thunder” on the Raccoon imprint of Warner Bros. that was run by the Youngbloods. Lamb recorded Jeffrey’s great song, “Reach High” on Lamb’s second album, “Cross Between.”

Jeffrey Cain was a singer/songwriter who released “For You” and “Whispering Thunder” on the Raccoon imprint of Warner Bros. that was run by the Youngbloods. Lamb recorded Jeffrey’s great song, “Reach High” on Lamb’s second album, “Cross Between.”

A Lightbulb Flashes Inside My Head
While washing dinner dishes one afternoon, I thought, what if Bay Area acoustic performers had their own evening? They wouldn’t have to compete with the rock bands and have their more gentle sounds become dwarfed by raucous fans stomping, “We want the Grateful Dead.” Each of them had small, loyal followings and, combined, would make for a decent audience. A name came into all these thoughts in the same flash: Equinox; A Traveling Faire of Acoustic Music.” I could talk the record companies into giving me money promoting the idea.. The music critics would love to write about it. A win-win for all.

Bill Graham gave Equinox a Tuesday night at the Fillmore, a night traditionally reserved for  audition bands.

Bill Graham gave Equinox a Tuesday night at the Fillmore, a night traditionally reserved for audition bands.

The vision was so complete that it reminded me of how many songwriters described how some window in their heart opened, and their songs came to them complete, as though they were channeling it.

In a rush of excitement I called David Rubinson of Fillmore Records. He was the one who sent me to see Bill Graham about a job in management many months ago, only to be rebuffed. “I have an idea . . . Can I come down and talk with you about it?” He didn’t ask what it was. He just said yes.

After blurting in all out in a rush, Rubinson asked, “What do you need to carry this idea out?”

“An office, a phone and a salary.”

“How much salary?”

“$150 a week. I’d take the expenses out of any promo money I got.”

He led me to a windowless office in the back of the first floor. Gave me a desk. Set up phones. I got to work.

David was supporting an essentially rogue operation out of Fillmore Records.

Equinox: A Promotional Hook as Good as a Hit Song
First, I told the bands about my idea and new job and asked them to agree to perform as a group once or twice a week. They were completely supportive. The records companies pitched in $200 a month for promotion of Equinox gigs. Then I had a poster designed and printed that made it possible to add the names of performers and the club/date and took it around to various clubs and began to get bookings.

Lambert & Nuttycomb’s 1970 release was recorded live at the home they shared in Sausalito, California, and co-produced by David Anderle (The Doors, Love), Chad Stuart (Chad and Jeremy) and Glyn Johns (the Beatles, the Rolling Stones).

Lambert & Nuttycomb’s 1970 release was recorded live at the home they shared in Sausalito, California, and co-produced by David Anderle (The Doors, Love), Chad Stuart (Chad and Jeremy) and Glyn Johns (the Beatles, the Rolling Stones).

Equinox was a fabulous promotional ‘hook.’ It was easy to get club owners on board, especially on off nights like Monday or Tuesday. It was easy to get reviewers to come to the gigs and write about the idea and the individual bands. The fan base got larger; the bookings increased. Airplay for their recordings followed.

My involvement with Lamb and with Victoria increased. Because they had no manager to resolve their day-to-day problems, it became my job to get them to gigs on time, make sure they had a decent sound system and sound check, collect and divvy up the money, and talk to record companies about how much their fans loved them, send out press releases, contact people on a growing mailing list every time there was a gig.

And all the while I also used my office and the prestige that went with it to further Pamela’s career, I made a demo and started approaching record companies to sign her.

Photo taken by Scott  Runyan on Mt. Tamalpais in Marin County.

Photo taken by Scott Runyan on Mt. Tamalpais in Marin County.

My Job at Fillmore Management Becomes Reality
Six months later, David sent me upstairs to see Bill again. This time Keeva Krystal, Bill’s gatekeeper, let me pass into Bill’s office. He was polite, rather than dismissive. I did not remind him of his sexist remark, “No women. No way.”

“You can have the back office next to Taj Mahal,” Bill said. “I only want to see you when you have problems you can’t solve. Same salary that David is giving you.”

Although I had proven I had a lot of creative spunk, there was a lot I did not know.

My bands were now part of a much bigger team in a conglomerate that included Bill Graham Presents (concert production at Fillmore West and Fillmore East), Fillmore Records, Fillmore Management, Fillmore Publishing, and The Millard Agency. Theoretically, all these entities would help forward the career of bands that were signed to Fillmore Management, which included Santana, Taj Mahal, In Cold Blood, It’s a Beautiful Day, Elvin Bishop, Lamb and Victoria, and for a few years, The Pointer Sisters.

In practice, these bands competed for the same attention and bucks. Right up there on the third floor of Fillmore Management, a big internecine war was always going on, between band members, band members and managers, manager and managers, managers and booking agents and so on. There were hundreds of ways to be jerked around. At one point, Santana walked on and took on the job of management on their own. It was ‘office politics’ on a scale I never even dreamed existed.

Bands that had record deals with major labels competed not only with other bands that were signed to Fillmore Records, but the entire stable of bands signed to the larger record label.

Problems? There were always problems. Every day. The manager was chief problem solver. And the person that would take the flak for anything that went wrong with a smile.

The sign on my office door read, “Here’s Help.”

You Know When You’re From Jerome When. . .

A few years ago, Denise Lerette started a Facebook craze in Jerome when she posted, “You know you’re from Jerome when. . .” The responses crowded my mail box and many of them were hilarious. Many were from children of sixties and seventies parents.

Nobody ever stops living in Jerome, even when they’re not there, and many favorite memories begin with, “When I was in Jerome. . .”

I couldn’t top some of the great one liners, so many of them memories of the kids as they grew up in Jerome. Here are my favorites.

Kathleen Williamson
When you breathe deeply and inhale the Milky Way.

Aaron Bacharach
You have to walk two miles just to get drunk or laid.

Had to ride a wooden Radio Flier wagon two miles into town with my mom to get water and then get pulled back home by my mom with jugs of water beside me.

Told tourists that there is a gas station about 5 miles out Perkinsville Rd.

Go trick-or-treating in the Gulch and get grapefruit.

A tourist asks what elevation the deer turn into elk.

Scott Hugues
You remember Pat Bacharach (Montreiul) coming from Perkinsville road, 3-4 feet of snow on the ground, on her little red ‘K-Tel’ skis with little Aaron in tow!!! A vision I shall never forget!

Riding my bike to MUHS in Cottonwood and then catching a ride back to Jerome on the big purple bus!

Jesse Dowling
The house you grew up in started out as a goat shed and was rebuilt with lumber from the burn pile.

You used to hang around the Spirit Room and wait for ‘the chip man’ to give out the expired bags of chips after he delivered new ones

You made extra candy money by selling tourists ‘leaver-ite’—the rare and hard to find mineral that you only find in Jerome…
If you ever swung from the upper park flag pole out over Main Street

Susan Dowling (Jesse’s mom)
When you know that stream of blue and brown water coming from your neighbor’s garage means they’re carving turquoise and pipestone

People in the houses up town can see you sunbathing nekkid in your garden

Mary Nickerson finds a tourist car that didn’t make the turn nose down in her garden.

You hear Kathleen’s goats calling her to come milk them

You walk up the gulch to Petra Lomeli’s store so you can weigh your baby.

The telephone guys and the electric meter readers stop at the bottom of the Gulch to take a pee behind the old dilapidated store.

When the septic was a hole in the ground, shored up with wood and tin.

Know where the old apple tree is up Allen Springs Road so you can have a snack while riding.

Diane Johnson & Cherry Waters
You check the parked cars to see if your friends are at Paul and Jerry’s yet.

You call all the dogs on Main Street by name.

You check the “free box” for your summer wardrobe.

Sally Stricker

You saw Kathleen Williamson riding up town on her donkey and tying her up at the Flat Iron while she went in and had her espresso

Alishia Amber Craig

You know that Jerry pays the town Santa every year with two cases of Budweiser.
long ones in Jerome.

When centipedes in other towns don’t freak you out as much as the mutant foot long ones in Jerome.

Denise Lerette
Watch Zach and Danny ride their skateboards down the hill

You’ve seen this bumper sticker on the back of Lang’s police car—”Bad cop, no donut”

Walk up to bake at Macy’s at about 4 am in the morning after a huge opening at the Exposure Gallery—Paul Nonnast was featured that night—to find the bartender of the function, Benny, peacefully snoozing in the street in front of the gallery!! Now that was funny, Benny!!

And who can forget Katie Lee riding through town on her bike naked in honor of Harvey’s passing. Love Katie Lee!!

Jane Moore, one of the owners of Made in Jerome, made this for Katie for her 93rd birthday.

Jane Moore, one of the owners of Made in Jerome, made this for Katie for her 93rd birthday.

Sonya Wilson
Pllayed hide and seek in the old high school, did magic tricks on the big steps for money for Cheetos and soda, and made the flumes into your own private water slide Woo Hoo!

You go down to Guy’s house, walk in and you dad is there! You say “Dad?!?! What are you doing here?” to which Guy replies “Same thing you’re doing. Now sit down and shut up.”

Rayna Phelps Bachman
Broke into the old bomb shelter in the elementary school and getting drunk for the first time (courtesy of booze Troy Harris stole from his dad). Then being ditched there by Troy, TK, and Steve and being carried to Karrisa Baltz’s house by Ron Barber (the sheriff) so they could call my mom. Ah, good times.

Rode the flumes

Had a huge snowball fight with the cops.

Made out in the glowing rock room at the Douglas Mansion.

Pretty much existing on apricots from all the trees around town because you were too busy playing to go home and eat.

Joe D. Garrett
Swung off the swing set in the park using the rope on the flagpole (probably why it’s locked up today)

You get stoned under the steps in the park or in the abandoned apartments above the park or in the sliding jail or everywhere in Jerome !


Denise M. Ford

The tourist you just served the bloody mary to asks you what you do for a living

Larry comes uptown on a motorized bar stool

Silkie is pouring a beer with a cig in her mouth and a baby on the breast at PJ’s

You use the noonish siren as an alarm clock

Heather Johnson
You remember when there were more tumbleweeds than cars on Main Street

You remember playing “ditch the cops” when you were out after curfew!!

Teri Horinek Von Gausig

You can remember the officer on duty on Sat & Sun would stop the tourist traffic in front of the Spirit Room so we could all pour out into the streets and dance!

You can remember “sneaking” a mattress down the stairs onto Main St. from the old Connor Hotel late at night with Tesa and trying to be quiet about it so that George wouldn’t hear you…..

Noel Fray
Remember sneaking into the old empty hospital on Halloween night to see if you could find any ghosts.

Omar Fray
If you’ve ever had a VW Bus try to park on your front porch.

Remember playing “ditch the cops” when you were out after curfew!!

David Solomon
You’re sitting on your deck or working in the garden and a tourist asks if you work here, in Jerome, like it’s a reenactment stage or something. Not that you could be at your own home or anything. I made up an elaborate story about how we all lived down in the valley and were 9-5ers. People believed it!

Kim Smerek
You’re happy living in the projection room at the high school with one other person, a dog and someone else’s stuff.

Terry Molloy
When you sit on your front porch at night and watch Pedro the donkey stand in the middle of the road stopping tourists in their cars begging for treats…….

Doyle Vines
Remember the days when it was too iced up for traffic to come up the road from Clarkdale, so we sledded down and caught a 4WD back to town

Lisa Hesterman
Katie Lee is standing in front of you with her guitar singing and crying while you’re watching a black and white slideshow of what used to be Lake Fowell (Lake Powell)

Terez Storm
As a member of the Fire Department you set fire to wooden palettes at the Little Daisy Hotel for “live” fire and rescue drills

TK Gustafson
Mailing postcards to someone addressed ‘General Delivery’ in Jerome and having it tacked on the bulletin board in the post office for the entire town to read

Charlie the UPS driver leaving you gallons of fresh milk on his way through his UPS route and then making the UPS truck backfire to scare the shit out of the tourists!


Adam Martin

when you know the name Jim Faernstrom and know where his head stone is

When the D. A. R. E. Cops came to school and only pull you out of class

(Soon to be published in Diane Rapaport’s book, Home Sweet Jerome, Rescuing a Town from its Ghosts, forthcoming Spring 2014 from Johnson Books (Big Earth Publishing).

How to Get Rid of Grasshoppers: Jerome AZ Citizens Give Advice

During a grasshopper infestation in Jerome, Arizona, I asked our local gardeners what to do. After 20 suggestions for entirely different solutions. I stopped asking. I understood why Jerome, Arizona is sometimes called a village of 400 people and 1000 opinions. Maybe it’s that way with all small towns, but Jeromans seem to thrive on contentiousness. Home sweet Jerome is not always so sweet. I almost put the suggestions in my book, Home Sweet Jerome, but it wasn’t entirely relevant to a book about the rescue of this old ghost town by a lot of hippies and oldtimers that stayed behind when the ines abandoned this copper mecca in 1953.(www.homesweetjerome.net),

For those who are serious about getting rid of grasshoppers, the first two solutions are best.

1. Shake some Diatomaceous earth on your plants. It contains ground-up skeletons of algae-like plants called diatoms, which contain lots of calcium, silica and other trace minerals. When the grasshoppers eat this, it cuts their intestines to pieces and they die.

Grasshopper photo by Tom Johnson on his technical writing website:http://idratherbewriting.com.

Grasshopper photo by Tom Johnson on his technical writing website:http://idratherbewriting.com.

2. Use an environmentally safe product like Nolo Bait, which infects them and cuts down on germination.

3. Distribute bottles containing one part molasses with ten parts water. The grasshoppers will jump in and not jump out.

4. Spray your plants with a mixture of soap and hot chile peppers.

5. Put garlic in a food blender, mix with water and spray it on the plants.

6. Go out early in the morning when the grasshoppers are sluggish and gather a bunch of them. Put in a blender and spray the plants with the mixture.

7. Get a battery-operated tone generator tuned to a frequency they don’t like. Of course, you’ll have to experiment to find the right frequency.

8. Use more mulch so they can’t hatch.

This photo of a grasshopper looks vaguely menacing.

This photo of a grasshopper looks vaguely menacing.

9. Plant enough for you and the grasshoppers.

10. Pay your kids a dime for every grasshopper they collect.

11. Put a larger fence around your garden and keep chickens. The chickens will eat the grasshoppers, and besides, then you’ll have fresh eggs and lots of fertilizer.

12. Get toads. Toads will eat anything that moves. There’s a lot of ‘em down at the Verde River.

13. Spray the plants with hair spray. They hate it.

14. Spread powdered sugar on the ground. The grasshoppers will eat that instead.

15. Connect a hose to the exhaust of your car, start it up, and hose ‘em with carbon monoxide.

16. Smash them dead with a golf club.

17. Sprinkle bran on the plants. They eat it and explode.

18. Poison ‘em with Malathion 50 (or other insecticide).

19. “I don’t know. But I’m going to need an answer soon!”

20. If all else fails, you can eat them. Fry them up in a little olive oil, crunchy and tasty if you have good stuff growing in your garden.

No wonder I stopped asking.

Definitions of Jerome AZ in the Seventies and Eighties

How the community defined itself or envisioned itself was always as quirky and fun as its residents. My favorite graphics were the imaginative ones on the front cover of a magazine called “The Jerome Times,” published in the eighties with fabulous covers of Jerome as a spaceship or ashram.

Here are some of my favorite definitions of Jerome.

Twinkle Town

Rebels without a Clue

400 people and 800 opinions

An unintentional community

The last of the Bohemian ghettos

Large hippie coffeehouse

Only place I know of where you can spit a block

The backwash of the avante garde (or the avante garde of the backwash)

Retirement community for hippies

Floating galaxy on the mountain

A hippie redoubt

The town that died and went to heaven.

A den of pirates

Where eccentricity seems commonplace

Boarding house for the voluntarily insane

Patchwork quilt

Town full of hippiecritters and cocationers

Rest home for old retreads

Insane asylum without a roof

(Soon to be published in Diane Sward Rapaport’s new book, Home Sweet Jerome, Rescuing a Town from its Ghosts, forthcoming Spring 2014 from Johnson Books (Big Earth Publishing).